- 1 Pelargonium (geranium)
- 2 Pelargonium: care, propagation and transplanting at home
- 3 Geranium room - photos, views, care, reproduction, use of colors
Pelargonium (Pelargonium) belongs to the family Geraniaceae. Other, more common name of this flower - geranium. Maybe you will be surprised, but the home to this lovely and such a friend to all of us since childhood plant is South Africa. That pelargonium, which we all know, appeared in the Netherlands in the XVI century, and in Europe it came at the end of XVII - beginning of XVIII century. At first it was considered exotic flower, but very soon, already in the XVIII century, has become incredibly popular.
As a result, a large follow-breeding work on the removal of numerous hybrids and varieties of this kind of enlarged variegated and dwarf forms, as well as varieties with white, two-color and double flowers. Today there are about 280 species of annual and perennial Pelargoniums, having the appearance of herbaceous plants, shrubs and dwarf shrubs.
I love these colors around the world due to their ruggedness, ease of maintenance and reproduction and the ability to bloom for a long time large colorful buds. As we have said, pelargonium varieties are very numerous. They can belong to one of 6 groups: a zonal (horticultural); plyuschelistnym (ampelnoe); English Grandiflora (royal or home); variegated; fragrant; succulent.
The last three groups are interesting primarily for its leaves; Grandiflora geranium can be grown only in the room; but the purpose of the zonal pelargonium and plyuschelistnoy that can be propagated by seeds, garden decoration and a balcony.
Pelargonium - cultivation and care
This flower loves heat and light. The optimal regime for its cultivation in the home will room temperature, in winter it feels best at a temperature of 8 ° C to 10 ° C.
With a lack of light the plant reduces its flowering. However, direct sunlight flower tolerates outdoors, but in indoor breeding conditions it is better to pritenyat from the hot midday sun. Also pelargonium likes space, so you need to make sure that it is not drowned out standing close to the plant.
Watering should be abundant, as the soil dries, which can not be pereuvlazhnyat not to fill the root system. In winter, watering should be reduced. Spray the plant is not necessary, it can damage the flower petals. Generally, the care is better not to pour water over him, he will cope with it more easily than an excess of moisture.
Best of all flower growing in a nutrient soil mixture made from equal parts taken in gardening earth, peat and sand. Be sure to take care of good drainage, should also produce periodic loosening the soil in pots to provide air access to the roots and prevent root rot.
When growing Pelargonium great importance is the size of the pot. He is chosen according to the size of the root system. But we must remember that it is best flowers in small pots, then it and the flowers more beautiful and brighter. Large pots contribute to the development of the bush and at the intensity of flowering.
To enhance the branching and the formation of the bush and the crown plants make pinched, where the growing point is removed. This must be done in February or March.
Flower gratefully responds to fertilizer. In the period of active growth it should be a mixture of mineral or liquid fertilizer during flowering - fertilizer with a high content of potassium and phosphorus and less - nitrogen. Feeding do every week from late spring to early autumn.
Pelargonium - transplantation and reproduction
Young plants require annual transplantation or at least the upper layer of soil replacement. For transplantation take a small container, otherwise it will develop strong shoots, but the plant will not bloom. Transplanted it into a mixture of turf, leaf, humus earth (two parts) and sand (one part).
Pelargoniums can be grown from seeds and cuttings. In the first case are plants that bloom more abundantly than those that grow from cuttings. Sowing the seeds produced in January-February, laying them on the wet ground and little covering the soil for planting. After spraying with a growth factor with seed container or covered with glass film and kept at a temperature of from 20 to 24 degrees, wetting periodically. Postemergence (after 1-2 weeks) were grown seedlings dive and at a temperature of from 16 to 18 degrees with good light about 6-8 weeks, after which they were transplanted to a constant pot.
However, most flower propagated by cuttings, this method is simpler and faster than the first. Rooting cuttings is carried out in February-March and in July and August by cutting the shoot apical rooting having 2-3 leaf and length of 5-7 cm. Podvyaliv cuttings in the shade for about a day and dipped them into the crushed coal, they put in a light mixture and contain at a temperature of 20 to 22 degrees. You do not have to cover the cuttings. On rooting in this way it takes about a month.
Pelargonium - possible diseases and pests
If you make mistakes in the care of a plant, it is sure to affect his appearance.
Thus, the shortage or excess moisture leaves turn yellow and fall off. If the edges of the leaves turn red - hence, the plant is cold, it lacks the warmth, the leaves fall - it means lack of light. When wetting the soil watery soft pads may appear on the leaves.
Geranium may suffer from such a disease as blackleg, wherein due to fungal attack occurs blackening stem base. This can happen due to waterlogged soil or seal that prevents drainage. Prevention of this disease is the sterilization of the soil before planting and watering the compliance regime.
Also because of the waterlogged soil can ill pelargonium botrytis. On the leaves in this case, a gray mold. In this case, you should remove the affected leaves and process plant systemic fungicide, reducing watering and often ventilate the room.
As you can see, taking care of pelargonium is not complicated. By following some simple rules for its breeding, you can get beautiful plants that will delight you with not only a beautiful multi-colored flowers, but also for its beneficial properties, creating a positive and peaceful aura in the room.
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Pelargonium: care, propagation and transplanting at home
Pelargonium - a plant of the family Geraniaceae, it is widely known as geranium. A native plant of South Africa, which inhabits the dry and windy regions.
Geranium - a herb, subshrub or shrub. Due to its unpretentiousness and abundant flowering, it is very popular for indoor, balcony and garden growing.
Love of Pelargonium nourish not only the Soviet grandmother, but also residents of Europe, it actively decorating their balconies and loggias. It should be noted that the plants growing in large pots, pots and "free" the soil in the garden, it blooms medium.
Species Pelargonium varieties
Just Pelargonium genus has about 250 species, according to which, in turn, displayed a lot of varieties.
The most popular and common types:
- Royal (aka grandiflora) - characterized by large flowers with petals zonal staining. Middle, always dark and velvety, and the edges are very bright;
- Plyuschelistnaya (or thyroid) pelargonium different glossy leaves and velvety petals of flowers. Stems its usually grow up to 1 meter in length, making the kind of thyroid popular for decoration of balconies and loggias;
- Zone - a characteristic feature of this species is a zonal coloration of leaves, the edge is always slightly lighter center. This is one of the most common types and based on it displayed a lot of varieties;
- Angel different fragrant its leaves and flowers, like pansies. The only drawback is a gradual decrease in the autumn colors;
- Scented pelargonium grow quite large and are therefore often used for landscaping gardens. However, you should be careful, because it has a very fragile stems which can break in strong winds.
Care at home for beginners
By itself, the care of pelargonium simple, and it is perfect for novice gardeners or anyone who does not like to mess around with plants. The main thing is to follow a few simple rules, and monitor the status of geranium. If something goes wrong, for example, you forget to water the plant, everything will be clear in appearance.
Pelargonium - photophilous plant can withstand direct sunlight. The best place for its location is south, east or west side. Although the hot weather, pelargonium can "throw" almost all the leaves and flowers remain only.
Therefore, in regions with hot climates, and in the height of summer, it is better to remove the plant from the south side. This can be done safely, since movement does not affect the geraniums.
In general, lighting should be ample, ideally daylight is 16 hours. With a lack of light the stalks begin to elongate and the plant loses its good looks. Summer geraniums better stand on the balcony or in the garden, so that it is directly under the sun.
When choosing a location and lighting, should take into account the individual characteristics of the species, so scented pelargonium prefers shaded places. And for the royal undesirable species from direct sunlight, so you should avoid placing on the south side.
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Temperature and humidity
Temperature conditions for Pelargonium, preferably moderate. She does not like the cold weather or great heat.
- summer - +20 - +22 degrees;
- winter - 16 degrees;
- Some species can withstand short cooling (e.g. pelargonium zonal withstand temperature drop to 1).
As for humidity, it will suit the usual indicators. Additional wetting (spraying) pelargonium requires. An extreme case, it is much dry air during a heat wave. But highly humid air can cause rotting of the roots and stems as well as the appearance of infections.
Also watch out for air circulation. It must be constantly. In the stale stagnant air plant will start to hurt. This is especially important during the winter.
The frequent watering geraniums does not need. We need to be guided as drying of the soil. But there are a few rules in the summer the soil should always be vlazhnovatoy (but not wet).
The best way to check the time to water pelargonium or not is to check the soil to the touch. The top layer should be dried, but underneath it (about 1 cm deep), the land has to be vlazhnovatoy.
When watering is required to wait for the water to drain into the sump. After 10 minutes, drain the liquid and wait until it is completely drained. Watering is best done in a pan and pour water directly under the root. This is known to the most experienced gardeners and florists. But even if we do all of the "ordinary" - do not worry, the main thing then remove excess liquid. This rule applies to both the winter and the summer watering.
With fertilizing still easier. It is necessary to make the flowering period - approximately from early spring to late autumn. Time solution for flowering plants brought in two weeks. You can select any nitrogen-rich fertilizer is not. Dosage, refer to the instructions of each specific fertilizer.
The transplant pelargonium almost does not need, the only exception is transplanting rooted cuttings, but a little later about it. Pelargonium grows about three years, so, usually, only the replacement of topsoil on the new (a mixture prepared in the same way as the soil in which the plant is already growing).
Crop plants should be annually, at the beginning of the flowering period, ie in early spring. Usually cleaned all the top runners (more can be used for breeding). This allows you to precisely trim the side Pelargonium growth and abundant flowering.
Color geranium, as already mentioned, from early spring to late autumn. flowering form - a few umbrella inflorescence. They can be completely different color (depending on the type and grade). Flowers also differ in size (in some species they are large, like a royal, others are smaller).
Reproduction at home
Pelargonium home can reproduce in two ways: by seeds and by means of cuttings. The first, common not much when grown at home, as it is quite difficult.
For multiplication by seed, in the spring and is preparing a container filled with light soil. The seeds were sown in the soil and watered regularly. The first time the temperature should be 20-22 degrees.
In mid-summer, the young plants are transplanted into a mixture of leaf and turf ground with phosphorus and sand. In this respected components are taken in equal amounts.
For vegetative propagation by cuttings taken a small pot (about 19 cm in diameter). To start at the bottom is laid drainage, and then poured a mixture of peat and sand.
The cuttings should have 3-5 pairs of leaves, but not less than 2. They are cut or node, or a little below. I cut the cuttings removed bottom pair of leaves leaving naked "bar."
After preparing the cuttings need to make holes in the ground near the edge of the pot. Then place the cuttings back so that all the leaves are above the soil and lightly tamp the soil.
Now we need to wait a few days until the roots "grappled" with the soil. Only then can we water the young plants. By mid-summer pelargonium transplant into pots bigger.
Pelargonium though hardy plant, but also can sometimes be ill, often it is due to improper care.
- gray mold;
- Verticillium Wilt;
- rotting of the stem;
- Other pathogenic fungi, due to which the leaves and petioles appear different spots.
If the plant has started to develop gray mold, then it leaves, shoots, stems and even the main petals of flowers starts to appear gray patina. This occurs because of low temperatures, humidity and absence of its ventilation abundant irrigation.
- observe the temperature regime in winter, needed for Pelargonium;
- regularly ventilate the room;
- Do not place plants close to each other;
- dry or remove diseased leaves;
- do not water more than once in 10 days.
Rust can detect concentric circles brown on the internal side of the sheet. On the outer side of the plate will be visible only yellow circles.
Reasons: dampness, poor ventilation.
Treatment: it is necessary to cut off all the leaves affected and treat the plant with a solution benlata rate of 1 g per 1 liter.
This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the conductive Pelargonium system. In geranium gradually fade and the leaves turn yellow. No treatment.
At the base of the stem begins to emerge and increase the black spot. Gradually rots the stem completely at the base. Treatment - is absent. The most we can do is to cut off the stalk from the top and prevent the disease. The reasons: too much water.
Insects that affect pelargonium:
- Whitefly - a very small white butterfly. Instead, it has small white larvae are on the plant;
- Mites are found at the bottom side of the sheet and their presence can be detected by a characteristic thin web on the plant. With the defeat of mite leaves gradually become marble due to deprivation of nutrients;
- Mealybug - detected by the characteristic clumps, like cotton, in the axils of the leaves and stems.
During the acquisition of the plant carefully check for the presence of whitefly and mealybug. If you suddenly found signs of pests or themselves - give up the purchase.
Possible problems and their solutions
In addition to infection by various plant diseases and pests, and possible less terrible problem. they usually occur due to improper care and are treated with the elimination of the causes.
Problems and solutions:
- If pelargonium leaves start to blush, then the temperature is too low and it is necessary to set the desired temperature range;
- Not only flowers, but a large number of leaves - you make a lot of fertilizer, reduce the number, and it is better to temporarily stop feeding;
- Yellowing lower leaves - the lack of moisture and lack of ventilation.
Important in the care of this amazing plant - it's simple to comply with all rules or time to correct the situation. And the rest of the plant does not cause discomfort and pleases the eye with its flowering.
A few tips on forming a lush bush Pelargonium there in the next video.
I cut germinating cuttings of geraniums, first put in a glass of water, so that they let in water the roots. Then be sure to take root geranium in a pot when planting. I'm in an apartment is the most unpretentious flower, excluding cacti.
Geranium room - photos, views, care, reproduction, use of colors
Geranium - a flower, which in our time has become considered a "grandmother" because it is known for a very long time in the indoor garden and horticulture, and, in general, breeding and collecting these plants is engaged in the older generation.
Youth is currently geraniums in its standard form: rounded panicles of red flowers and bath dark green leaves. In fact, progress does not stand still, and breeders have opened a lot of varieties of pelargonium, which are different forms of the flower, leaf color, plant size and other parameters.
If you want to buy a houseplant that will not require constant nursing care and annual transplants, while remaining very decorative for a long time, then you should think about growing some varieties of geranium room.
In order to deal with the selection of varieties, it is necessary to consider the groups, which are divided Pelargonium room. They will be presented below with the description of the general characteristics of a group of species
It can immediately be recognized by the characteristic color of the leaves dark green leaf as it is bordered by a brown strip, hence the second name of the species. It zonal geranium is that "grandma" view, because this group is the most common and has more than 70,000 varieties.
Their division is carried out not only on the color flower color, but also by their form. Allocate simple flowers, semi-double and double. It is clear that depending on the complexity of the flower, they have a different number of petals.
Also, the leaves vary in severity dark bands: some varieties of geranium it is seen very clearly in others - is practically invisible, border width also depends on the variety.
It ampelnye kind of pelargonium, which produces a lot of long flowing shoots. In this regard, geranium plyuschelistnye thrown in pots or hanging pots, standing at a height. It should be borne in mind that plyuschelistnye varieties produce whip up to 1 m.
Characterized by the group as an absolute smoothness and glossy leaves that resemble ivy leaves. Hence the name of the group.
Also refers to ampelnye, however, shorter lashes. Flower interesting here: it is very much like Viola (pansy) and looks wonderful in panicle.
Here it becomes clear from the title, what is interesting, this group grower. Smell the sea, it all depends on the particular variety. Collected in this group Pelargonium contain volatile in their leaves, which are responsible for the production of flavor. The smell is very strong, especially when you touch the plant.
Immediately it should be noted that the appearance of scented geranium is not as interesting as in the previous cases: green leaves with a gun, uneven and large flowers are simple standard colors.
The plant itself develops quickly and can therefore be pulled over. To bush was a bush, not a couple of long shoots, it is necessary to periodically pinch.
Perhaps the most beautiful pelargonium are of this kind. The flowers are also collected in paniculate inflorescences rounded, but each of them can reach 7 cm in diameter. Thus, the flower caps obtained simply gigantic. Their color can be very different, and we have in mind not only the basic color, but also the presence of veins kaomochek, stains, etc.
Really can be considered unique, as gathered a lot of interesting signs: the flowers are very beautiful, with streaks and patterns, which can boast of the previous group, but the size, of course, not so great.
The leaves are also decorative and at the same time have a certain flavor, depending on the variety. He is a bit weaker than than that of scented pelargonium, but quite marked.
Miniature and dwarf geranium
Are small bushes, blooming profusely and do not require pruning at all. Varieties of geraniums come in handy for those who have all the window sills have zzastavleny other plants.
Now you can see some interesting species of geraniums, it is characterized by the shape of a flower. These include :
- Rosaceae zone. The flowers resemble real small roses, collected in a whisk;
- kaktusovidnye zone. Hard to say, they are beautiful or not. It's an option for everybody. Sami large flowers and petals curled into cones and resemble the spines of cacti;
- stellate zone. It is named in connection with the petal shape - it is pointed, narrowed towards the top;
- gvozdikotsvetnye. Clove has a jagged petals, and it is their property taken over this group of geraniums.
Geranium is available in three forms: in seeds, rooting cuttings and a well-developed adult bush. Their cultivation should be considered separately.
Growing from seeds Pelargonium
Pelargonium seeds are quite large, so the problems with their landing, as a rule, does not arise even novice gardeners. When planting the seeds of their stack with the flat side on the ground, pressing down lightly. The distance between seeds is observed at least 2 cm.
After they were planted in the ground, the ground is not watered watering, as well sprinkled from the sprinkler, so the seeds do not razmoyut and remain in place.
Typically, in order to geranium flowers in summer, planting its seed begins in late February. At capacity, which planted the seeds, put on a plastic bag. All you need to clean in a dark warm place and check on the seedlings every day. Basically, Pelargonium germinate in 5-6 days.
After at least one will sprout, the entire container be exposed to light, and the package is removed. When the seedlings grow and will have four sheets, it can sit on a separate pot (this operation is called sparring).
Cultivation of rooted cuttings and a well-developed shrub
Here, everything will be based on a selection of pots and soil for transplanting seedlings purchased. The soil in an already finished product can be bought in a specialty store, but you can make yourself and if the house is a land that was brought from the garden in the fall. To do this, you just need to mix:
Compiled so the soil is loose. Selection of the pot is made depending on the state of the root system of seedlings.
Even for an adult bush will approach a small pot with a diameter of about 15 cm. Of course, it is recommended to buy a pot of baked clay, but they are usually more expensive than plastic.
Therefore, if you do not want the extra cost, the plastic is also not too bad, just the water is not so dries quickly, and there is a risk, "pour" plant.
It is imperative to prevent root rot and black leg, you need to ensure quality in the pot drainage, rolled in a layer of 2-3 cm. What to say, he should have a pot at the bottom of at least one drain hole.
geranium cuttings in peat pellets
As mentioned in the beginning of this article, geranium is very undemanding to care for her and love that florists. Care represents the following conditions:
It all depends on drying rate of the upper layer of the earth. Geranium much better tolerate drought than excessive moisture, so it is important not to "pour", otherwise the bush can not escape death.
Typically watering is carried out about three times a week. By the way, it must be done carefully, trying not to fall on the leaves of the plant. Spraying Geranium is also undesirable.
Geranium is very light, so it blooms depends on the amount of sunlight that it will get. Suitable for growing pelargoniums southern well-lit window.
This factor in the summer is not particularly important. In winter, the temperature should not fall below 10 0 C. The main protect the plant from drafts.
It recommended to periodically carry out this operation in order that the air fed to the roots and the soil is not turned into one monolithic piece. To proryhlit land, it is not necessary to have a special rake: You can use the old fork or stick.
Geraniums are fed during the flowering and before the beginning of the phosphorus-containing fertilizers. In no case should not make organic fertilizer, geranium simply can not tolerate.
It implies renewal pruning plants and forming shop adult young. In the first case it is left on each shoot buds up to five, of which further new branches appear.
In the second case, a reception topping verhushechek fingers for better tillering. All these operations are recommended at the end of winter - early spring.
It is carried out not every year, once in 2-3 years. It is best to transplant with a lump of land, not exposing the roots.
Usually, this operation is carried out when the room pelargonium significantly slows down the development. But this does not mean that the new pot should be huge. It is possible to increase its diameter by the thickness of the index finger.
To preserve the characteristic signs usually propagated varieties geranium cuttings or dividing adult bush.
If you personally to collect the seeds, then no guarantee of conservation varieties. If you want to try planting seeds of assembly, it is necessary to scarification, ie removal of the outer casing. Seeds fray between two pieces nazhdachki.
Still, growers often shrub cuttings. The cut stalks about 6 cm placed in water prior to sprouting of young white roots and then thrown into the soil or germinated in large moist sand. Both methods are effective and widely used.
Flowering geranium comes after planting seeds in about five months, so if they put it in the end of February, the pelargonium bloom in the same year.
Stalk bloom before - after three months. However, these terms relate mainly to the zonal types, Angels and Royal pelargonium bloom in any case only in the second year.
Diseases and pests Pelargonium
The most common diseases in geraniums room conditions include fungal and viral diseases. To include fungal blackleg, leaf rust, various types of rot. Most often, these diseases are treated with solutions of fungicides.
Pests Geranium a little, but they are very annoying. These include aphids, whitefly, caterpillars and mites. Them or traces of their life can be detected by careful examination of the plant's leaves on both sides.
Get rid of the pests is possible by means of spraying geranium special sredstvaami. If it was not possible to establish exactly who settled on a flower, it is better to use the drug from the complex of pests.
Inexperienced growers can often encounter the following issues when growing geraniums: leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the bush does not want to bloom.
Here lies probably the result of improper care.
- If the sheet is yellow at the edge, so the bush gets a little water.
- If the leaves are flaccid and fallen, the bush is filled.
- If the leaves fall from the bottom of the plant, the geranium is not enough sunlight. By the way, for this reason, may not bloom.
- Geranium also does not want to produce flower stalks, if it overfeed nitrogen, which serves to set the green mass of plants.
In order not to end on such a bad moment, as the problems in the cultivation of Pelargonium, you can talk about its beneficial properties.
- First, the plant cleans indoor air of harmful microbes. The smell of geraniums reduces stress, relieves depression.
- Secondly, it deters pests from other plants and flowers. Summer recommend make a geranium in the garden, under the currant bushes - that there are no aphids!
- And thirdly, geranium is widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. It is compared with plantain! Fresh leaves perfectly tightened wounds and treat ulcers. Decoction helps in diseases of the intestines and stomach.
- Also prepared from Geranium essential oil with delicate flavor which is used for medicinal purposes. It cures colds, earaches, fatigue in the muscles, pain in the back.
Videos of growing pelargonium - geranium
Here is a useful and beautiful plant - Pelargonium or geranium bedroom. Grow on the windowsill, and how to look after you now know.
December 24, 2016 | 22:32
What a beauty! I am of so many kinds of geraniums had no idea. Indeed, geranium angel like a pansy, beauty. And any kind of geranium has healing properties?
December 25, 2016 | 12:38
Yes, accustomed to the grandmother's geranium - ordinary balls colors 3-4 colors. And so many of them turns out to be! everything Geranium therapeutic)