- 1 Pelargonium (geranium)
- 2 How to carry out care of pelargonium in the home?
- 3 Pelargonium: care, propagation and transplanting at home
Pelargonium (Pelargonium) belongs to the family Geraniaceae. Other, more common name of this flower - geranium. Maybe you will be surprised, but the home to this lovely and such a friend to all of us since childhood plant is South Africa. That pelargonium, which we all know, appeared in the Netherlands in the XVI century, and in Europe it came at the end of XVII - beginning of XVIII century. At first it was considered exotic flower, but very soon, already in the XVIII century, has become incredibly popular.
As a result, a large follow-breeding work on the removal of numerous hybrids and varieties of this kind of enlarged variegated and dwarf forms, as well as varieties with white, two-color and double flowers. Today there are about 280 species of annual and perennial Pelargoniums, having the appearance of herbaceous plants, shrubs and dwarf shrubs.
I love these colors around the world due to their ruggedness, ease of maintenance and reproduction and the ability to bloom for a long time large colorful buds. As we have said, pelargonium varieties are very numerous. They can belong to one of 6 groups: a zonal (horticultural); plyuschelistnym (ampelnoe); English Grandiflora (royal or home); variegated; fragrant; succulent.
The last three groups are interesting primarily for its leaves; Grandiflora geranium can be grown only in the room; but the purpose of the zonal pelargonium and plyuschelistnoy that can be propagated by seeds, garden decoration and a balcony.
Pelargonium - cultivation and care
This flower loves heat and light. The optimal regime for its cultivation in the home will room temperature, in winter it feels best at a temperature of 8 ° C to 10 ° C.
With a lack of light the plant reduces its flowering. However, direct sunlight flower tolerates outdoors, but in indoor breeding conditions it is better to pritenyat from the hot midday sun. Also pelargonium likes space, so you need to make sure that it is not drowned out standing close to the plant.
Watering should be abundant, as the soil dries, which can not be pereuvlazhnyat not to fill the root system. In winter, watering should be reduced. Spray the plant is not necessary, it can damage the flower petals. Generally, the care is better not to pour water over him, he will cope with it more easily than an excess of moisture.
Best of all flower growing in a nutrient soil mixture made from equal parts taken in gardening earth, peat and sand. Be sure to take care of good drainage, should also produce periodic loosening the soil in pots to provide air access to the roots and prevent root rot.
When growing Pelargonium great importance is the size of the pot. He is chosen according to the size of the root system. But we must remember that it is best flowers in small pots, then it and the flowers more beautiful and brighter. Large pots contribute to the development of the bush and at the intensity of flowering.
To enhance the branching and the formation of the bush and the crown plants make pinched, where the growing point is removed. This must be done in February or March.
Flower gratefully responds to fertilizer. In the period of active growth it should be a mixture of mineral or liquid fertilizer during flowering - fertilizer with a high content of potassium and phosphorus and less - nitrogen. Feeding do every week from late spring to early autumn.
Pelargonium - transplantation and reproduction
Young plants require annual transplantation or at least the upper layer of soil replacement. For transplantation take a small container, otherwise it will develop strong shoots, but the plant will not bloom. Transplanted it into a mixture of turf, leaf, humus earth (two parts) and sand (one part).
Pelargoniums can be grown from seeds and cuttings. In the first case are plants that bloom more abundantly than those that grow from cuttings. Sowing the seeds produced in January-February, laying them on the wet ground and little covering the soil for planting. After spraying with a growth factor with seed container or covered with glass film and kept at a temperature of from 20 to 24 degrees, wetting periodically. Postemergence (after 1-2 weeks) were grown seedlings dive and at a temperature of from 16 to 18 degrees with good light about 6-8 weeks, after which they were transplanted to a constant pot.
However, most flower propagated by cuttings, this method is simpler and faster than the first. Rooting cuttings is carried out in February-March and in July and August by cutting the shoot apical rooting having 2-3 leaf and length of 5-7 cm. Podvyaliv cuttings in the shade for about a day and dipped them into the crushed coal, they put in a light mixture and contain at a temperature of 20 to 22 degrees. You do not have to cover the cuttings. On rooting in this way it takes about a month.
Pelargonium - possible diseases and pests
If you make mistakes in the care of a plant, it is sure to affect his appearance.
Thus, the shortage or excess moisture leaves turn yellow and fall off. If the edges of the leaves turn red - hence, the plant is cold, it lacks the warmth, the leaves fall - it means lack of light. When wetting the soil watery soft pads may appear on the leaves.
Geranium may suffer from such a disease as blackleg, wherein due to fungal attack occurs blackening stem base. This can happen due to waterlogged soil or seal that prevents drainage. Prevention of this disease is the sterilization of the soil before planting and watering the compliance regime.
Also because of the waterlogged soil can ill pelargonium botrytis. On the leaves in this case, a gray mold. In this case, you should remove the affected leaves and process plant systemic fungicide, reducing watering and often ventilate the room.
As you can see, taking care of pelargonium is not complicated. By following some simple rules for its breeding, you can get beautiful plants that will delight you with not only a beautiful multi-colored flowers, but also for its beneficial properties, creating a positive and peaceful aura in the room.
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How to carry out care of pelargonium in the home?
More recently, a bush blooming geraniums on the windowsill was a mandatory attribute of a happy family. It was believed that the pelargonium is the guardian of the hearth. Undemanding plant to make room and gave way to new types of flowers. Geranium is not forgotten, often in the home care pelargonium gives first experience and develops into a craze.
The story of a geranium and diversity of varieties
At the end of the XVI century, whether they Indian, or African explorers brought the flower seeds unprecedented fragrant plants with beautiful flowers caps. At the court of the Queen of England already existed a beautiful winter garden with exotic plants. And there were three of the first varieties of geranium. They laid the foundation for numerous groups, obtained in the course of selection.
Pelargonium species are so many that even the classification goes according to various criteria. Talking about the room colors, using the classification of decoration:
There are "angels" and "Unicum" more variety. All of them are well tolerated bedroom and living conditions with good care bloom almost continuously. Pelargonium different shape and color of the leaves and buds, but always fragrant esters and their healing.
geranium summer put under an open window. It is believed that the plant on a windowsill drives out flies home. Leves applied to abrasions and cuts for the rapid healing of wound.
How to care for geraniums?
Propagation of pelargonium not create difficulties. Suffice it to detach from the plant stalk or buy a packet of seeds. Seed propagation method Pelargonium gives a showy plant with large caps colors.
Cutting can quickly get a flowering plant. Rooting can occur after the instruction roots in water, and during rooting in the soil. Since the plant is easy to catch on, you can create miniparnichok and plant a few stalks. Later, soak the substrate, disassemble them and sit in separate bowls.
Pelargonium soil to have a different composition:
- ground sheet, humus, sod in equal shares plus one-half parts sand;
- If the sheet is replaced by peat land, the proportion of all components, including sand, are the same;
- garden soil, peat and sand in equal parts.
You can buy in a flower shop special soil for these plants. Thus any soil must first be disinfected by any available means. Container with a drainage hole should not be spacious, pelargonium blooms, if the roots cramped.
A place where put geraniums should be sunny. In winter, the flower loves to relax. The rest period the temperature is reduced to 13 = 15 degrees and creates pritenenie. But if you provide such conditions is impossible, that is usually warmer than the higher illumination, up to highlight. And then the plant will not feel discomfort.
In winter, it is impossible to feed pelargonium.
Watered a geranium in a day in the summer when it's hot, but waterlogging may cause root rot, black leg. Therefore watered frequently in summer, winter is rare. Geranium survive drought and restored, and the excess water can destroy it. It is worth recalling that water for irrigation should be warm and defend. Fertilizer feeding floral liquid formulations do in a week, except for a period of rest. released a special blend for the geranium, it is called "Pelargovit".
Once the roots begin to make its way into the drainage hole of the pot, Pelargonium needs a transplant. Repot the plant in early spring 1-2 years. During the growing season the soil should be loose, while checking, not settled on whether the plant pests or disease.
The reasons why no blooms pelargonium little. The appearance of the plant will help to identify the problem.
- The plant has good leaves, is developing rapidly, but do not bloom. There greasing. Stop fertilizing irrigation and dry flower. If the container is large, while the roots are not filling the space, the flowering will not.
- Not enough light. Put the plant in direct sunlight, in the absence of light in the apartment the southern windows to organize supplementary lighting.
- If the leaves with a yellow border, the plant has oppressed look to check for root and stem rots. The leaves are examined for the presence of whiteflies and other insects.
For more information about diseases pelargonium and how to deal with them, can be found on the site. We can say that the problems arise from improper care. Often, pest or disease is brought from the ground or a new plant that have not passed quarantine exposure. Therefore, the hygienic requirements are important because to eradicate the disease in the home is difficult.
Ornamental plants deprived with dry air, nitrogenous fertilizers or overfeeding appearance downy mildew. Timely detection of the disease will keep the plant or to take away the cuttings.
Pelargonium: care, propagation and transplanting at home
Pelargonium - a plant of the family Geraniaceae, it is widely known as geranium. A native plant of South Africa, which inhabits the dry and windy regions.
Geranium - a herb, subshrub or shrub. Due to its unpretentiousness and abundant flowering, it is very popular for indoor, balcony and garden growing.
Love of Pelargonium nourish not only the Soviet grandmother, but also residents of Europe, it actively decorating their balconies and loggias. It should be noted that the plants growing in large pots, pots and "free" the soil in the garden, it blooms medium.
Species Pelargonium varieties
Just Pelargonium genus has about 250 species, according to which, in turn, displayed a lot of varieties.
The most popular and common types:
- Royal (aka grandiflora) - characterized by large flowers with petals zonal staining. Middle, always dark and velvety, and the edges are very bright;
- Plyuschelistnaya (or thyroid) pelargonium different glossy leaves and velvety petals of flowers. Stems its usually grow up to 1 meter in length, making the kind of thyroid popular for decoration of balconies and loggias;
- Zone - a characteristic feature of this species is a zonal coloration of leaves, the edge is always slightly lighter center. This is one of the most common types and based on it displayed a lot of varieties;
- Angel different fragrant its leaves and flowers, like pansies. The only drawback is a gradual decrease in the autumn colors;
- Scented pelargonium grow quite large and are therefore often used for landscaping gardens. However, you should be careful, because it has a very fragile stems which can break in strong winds.
Care at home for beginners
By itself, the care of pelargonium simple, and it is perfect for novice gardeners or anyone who does not like to mess around with plants. The main thing is to follow a few simple rules, and monitor the status of geranium. If something goes wrong, for example, you forget to water the plant, everything will be clear in appearance.
Pelargonium - photophilous plant can withstand direct sunlight. The best place for its location is south, east or west side. Although the hot weather, pelargonium can "throw" almost all the leaves and flowers remain only.
Therefore, in regions with hot climates, and in the height of summer, it is better to remove the plant from the south side. This can be done safely, since movement does not affect the geraniums.
In general, lighting should be ample, ideally daylight is 16 hours. With a lack of light the stalks begin to elongate and the plant loses its good looks. Summer geraniums better stand on the balcony or in the garden, so that it is directly under the sun.
When choosing a location and lighting, should take into account the individual characteristics of the species, so scented pelargonium prefers shaded places. And for the royal undesirable species from direct sunlight, so you should avoid placing on the south side.
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Temperature and humidity
Temperature conditions for Pelargonium, preferably moderate. She does not like the cold weather or great heat.
- summer - +20 - +22 degrees;
- winter - 16 degrees;
- Some species can withstand short cooling (e.g. pelargonium zonal withstand temperature drop to 1).
As for humidity, it will suit the usual indicators. Additional wetting (spraying) pelargonium requires. An extreme case, it is much dry air during a heat wave. But highly humid air can cause rotting of the roots and stems as well as the appearance of infections.
Also watch out for air circulation. It must be constantly. In the stale stagnant air plant will start to hurt. This is especially important during the winter.
The frequent watering geraniums does not need. We need to be guided as drying of the soil. But there are a few rules in the summer the soil should always be vlazhnovatoy (but not wet).
The best way to check the time to water pelargonium or not is to check the soil to the touch. The top layer should be dried, but underneath it (about 1 cm deep), the land has to be vlazhnovatoy.
When watering is required to wait for the water to drain into the sump. After 10 minutes, drain the liquid and wait until it is completely drained. Watering is best done in a pan and pour water directly under the root. This is known to the most experienced gardeners and florists. But even if we do all of the "ordinary" - do not worry, the main thing then remove excess liquid. This rule applies to both the winter and the summer watering.
With fertilizing still easier. It is necessary to make the flowering period - approximately from early spring to late autumn. Time solution for flowering plants brought in two weeks. You can select any nitrogen-rich fertilizer is not. Dosage, refer to the instructions of each specific fertilizer.
The transplant pelargonium almost does not need, the only exception is transplanting rooted cuttings, but a little later about it. Pelargonium grows about three years, so, usually, only the replacement of topsoil on the new (a mixture prepared in the same way as the soil in which the plant is already growing).
Crop plants should be annually, at the beginning of the flowering period, ie in early spring. Usually cleaned all the top runners (more can be used for breeding). This allows you to precisely trim the side Pelargonium growth and abundant flowering.
Color geranium, as already mentioned, from early spring to late autumn. flowering form - a few umbrella inflorescence. They can be completely different color (depending on the type and grade). Flowers also differ in size (in some species they are large, like a royal, others are smaller).
Reproduction at home
Pelargonium home can reproduce in two ways: by seeds and by means of cuttings. The first, common not much when grown at home, as it is quite difficult.
For multiplication by seed, in the spring and is preparing a container filled with light soil. The seeds were sown in the soil and watered regularly. The first time the temperature should be 20-22 degrees.
In mid-summer, the young plants are transplanted into a mixture of leaf and turf ground with phosphorus and sand. In this respected components are taken in equal amounts.
For vegetative propagation by cuttings taken a small pot (about 19 cm in diameter). To start at the bottom is laid drainage, and then poured a mixture of peat and sand.
The cuttings should have 3-5 pairs of leaves, but not less than 2. They are cut or node, or a little below. I cut the cuttings removed bottom pair of leaves leaving naked "bar."
After preparing the cuttings need to make holes in the ground near the edge of the pot. Then place the cuttings back so that all the leaves are above the soil and lightly tamp the soil.
Now we need to wait a few days until the roots "grappled" with the soil. Only then can we water the young plants. By mid-summer pelargonium transplant into pots bigger.
Pelargonium though hardy plant, but also can sometimes be ill, often it is due to improper care.
- gray mold;
- Verticillium Wilt;
- rotting of the stem;
- Other pathogenic fungi, due to which the leaves and petioles appear different spots.
If the plant has started to develop gray mold, then it leaves, shoots, stems and even the main petals of flowers starts to appear gray patina. This occurs because of low temperatures, humidity and absence of its ventilation abundant irrigation.
- observe the temperature regime in winter, needed for Pelargonium;
- regularly ventilate the room;
- Do not place plants close to each other;
- dry or remove diseased leaves;
- do not water more than once in 10 days.
Rust can detect concentric circles brown on the internal side of the sheet. On the outer side of the plate will be visible only yellow circles.
Reasons: dampness, poor ventilation.
Treatment: it is necessary to cut off all the leaves affected and treat the plant with a solution benlata rate of 1 g per 1 liter.
This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the conductive Pelargonium system. In geranium gradually fade and the leaves turn yellow. No treatment.
At the base of the stem begins to emerge and increase the black spot. Gradually rots the stem completely at the base. Treatment - is absent. The most we can do is to cut off the stalk from the top and prevent the disease. The reasons: too much water.
Insects that affect pelargonium:
- Whitefly - a very small white butterfly. Instead, it has small white larvae are on the plant;
- Mites are found at the bottom side of the sheet and their presence can be detected by a characteristic thin web on the plant. With the defeat of mite leaves gradually become marble due to deprivation of nutrients;
- Mealybug - detected by the characteristic clumps, like cotton, in the axils of the leaves and stems.
During the acquisition of the plant carefully check for the presence of whitefly and mealybug. If you suddenly found signs of pests or themselves - give up the purchase.
Possible problems and their solutions
In addition to infection by various plant diseases and pests, and possible less terrible problem. they usually occur due to improper care and are treated with the elimination of the causes.
Problems and solutions:
- If pelargonium leaves start to blush, then the temperature is too low and it is necessary to set the desired temperature range;
- Not only flowers, but a large number of leaves - you make a lot of fertilizer, reduce the number, and it is better to temporarily stop feeding;
- Yellowing lower leaves - the lack of moisture and lack of ventilation.
Important in the care of this amazing plant - it's simple to comply with all rules or time to correct the situation. And the rest of the plant does not cause discomfort and pleases the eye with its flowering.
A few tips on forming a lush bush Pelargonium there in the next video.
I cut germinating cuttings of geraniums, first put in a glass of water, so that they let in water the roots. Then be sure to take root geranium in a pot when planting. I'm in an apartment is the most unpretentious flower, excluding cacti.